“To Order” Endorsements on Bills of Lading

When a Letter of Credit asks for Bills of Lading with a phrase such as “Bills of Lading made out To Order and Blank Endorsed” this means that the Consignee Read more…

Managing Performance Guarantees

A Performance Guarantee (sometimes known as a Performance Bond) is often required when the customer has either paid funds upfront or guaranteed funds through a Letter of Credit, but wants Read more…

D-terms in Incoterms 2000

There are five D-terms in Incoterms 2000. These are DAF (Delivered at Frontier), DES (Delivered Ex-Ship) DEQ (Delivered Ex-Quay), DDU (Delivered Duty Unpaid) and DDP (Delivered Duty Paid). These terms Read more…

Jurisdiction Clauses in International Trade

Before any organization enters into an International contract for the supply of goods and services, they should be aware of the legal pitfalls involved in so doing. The best and Read more…

Shipment to Tincan Port, Lagos from Japan

There are some routings in international trade which, due to various circumstances, can result in delayed shipments. ¬†Please note, however, that all of these shipping routes are subject to change. Read more…