Transferable Letters of Credit – Problematic Documentary Clauses

Occasionally a Letter of Credit might have a documentary clause which could state, for example (or a variation thereof): “Beneficiary must advise us (usually name of issuing bank) value of Read more…

Certificates of Conformity

A number of countries require specialist certification which relates to verifying the quality and safety of imported goods prior to export. These documents are normally known as Certificates of Conformity Read more…

The Bribery Act 2010

In some international markets, corruption is said to be so endemic that doing business is only possible when bribes are paid. In the past such payments may have been routinely Read more…

Letters of Indemnity (Bills of Lading)

When goods are shipped by sea freight, A Bill of Lading is issued. A true Bill of Lading (there are a number of documents issued called Bills of Lading which Read more…